|Doing sport||Sitting down|
|Meeting places||Old buildings|
|Evening time||Boring things|
Describe a person who likes to dress fashionably.
Describe a person you know who loves to grow plants.
Describe a person you know who is from a different culture.
Describe a friend from childhood.
Describe a family member you want to work with.
Describe a popular person you know.
Describe an interesting neighbor.
Describe a friend you like to talk with.
Describe a popular place for sports that you’ve been to.
Describe the home of someone you know well and often visit.
Describe a place in your country that you would like to recommend to visitors/tourists.
Describe an important river/lake in your country.
Describe a quiet place.
Describe a city you would recommend as a nice place to live (not your hometown).
Describe a program you like to watch.
Describe a photo you took that you are proud of.
Describe an object that you think is beautiful.
Describe a story or novel you have heard about that you found nteresting.
Describe a movie you watched recently and would like to watch again.
Describe an important thing you learned (not at school or college).
Describe an invention that changed the world in a good way.
Describe a positive change you made in your life.
Describe a traditional product.
Describe something you do to keep you fit and healthy.
Describe something you do that can help you concentrate on study/work.
Describe a problem you had while shopping online or in a store.
Describe a time when you made a decision to wait for something.
Describe a time when you forgot/missed an appointment.
Describe a time you shared something with others.
Describe an outdoor activity you did in a new place recently.
Describe a disagreement you had with someone.
Describe a time when you saw a lot of plastic wastes.
Describe an impressive English lesson you had and enjoyed.
Describe a time when you needed to search for information.
Describe a time when you received money as a gift.
Describe a time when you over came difficulties in doing something and succeeded.
Describe a time you were very busy.
Describe a time you helped a child.
Describe a competition you want to participate in.
Describe a special day out that did not cost you too much.
Describe an occasion that you lost a thing.
Describe a time you celebrated an important event.
Describe a time when someone gave you positive advice on your study/work.
Describe something that surprised you.
Describe a time you were stuck in a traffic jam.
Describe a time you used your cellphone to do something important.
*部分整体难度不大，必考题如work or study /accommodation /hometown一定要好好准备。在回答时注意先给出直接回应，再加入适当拓展，拓展可以从细节补充或举例的角度入手。整个答案控制在3-5句话即可。
Pl 新西兰旅游 / P2 水族馆介绍 / P3 交通类交流 / P4 新西兰时尚
题型：P1填空题/ P2 单选题+地图 P3 多选题+匹配题/ P4 填空题
参考剑桥练习：剑15Test1 Section2;剑12Test2 Section2;剑10Test3 Section3;剑13Test1 Section4。
How Well Do We Concentrate?
A Do you read while listening to music? Do you like to watch TV while finishing your homework? People who have these kinds of habits are called multi-taskers. Multitaskers are able to complete two tasks at the same time by dividing their focus. However, Thomas Lehman, a researcher in Psychology, believes people never really do multiple things simultaneously. Maybe a person is reading while listening to music, but in reality, the brain can only focus on one task. Readingthe words in a book will cause you to ignore some of the words of the music. When people think they are accomplishing two different tasks efficiently, what they are really doing is dividing their focus. While listening to music, people become less able to focus on their surroundings. For example, we all have experience of times when we talk with friends and they are not responding properly. Maybe they are listening to someone else talk, or maybe they are reading a text on their smart phone and don’t hear what you are saying. Lehman called this phenomenon “email voice”
B The world has been changed by computers and its spin offs like smart-phones or cellphones. Now that most individuals have a personal device, like a smart-phone or a laptop, they are frequently reading, watching or listening to virtual information. This raises the occurrence of multitasking in our day to day life. Now when you work, you work with your typewriter, your cellphone, and some colleagues who may drop by at any time to speak with you. In professional meetings, when one normally focuses and listens to one another, people are more likely to have a cell phone in their lap, reading or communicating silently with more people than ever, liven inventions such as the cordless phone has increased multitasking. In the old days, a traditional wall phone would ring, and then the housewife would have to stop her activities to answer it. When it rang, the housewife will sit down with her legs up. and chat, with no laundry or sweeping or answering the door. In the modern era, our technology is convenient enough to not interrupt our daily tasks.
C Earl Miller, an expert at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, studied the prefrontal cortex, which controls the brain while a person is multitasking. According to his studies, the size of this cortex varies between species, He found that for humans, the size of this part constitutes one third of the brain, while it is only 4 to 5 percent in dogs, and about 15% in monkeys. Given that this cortex is larger on a human, it allows a human to be more flexible and accurate in his or her multitasking.. However, Miller wanted to look further into whether thecortex was truly processing information about two different tasks
simultaneously. He designed an experiment where he presents visual stimulants to his subjects in a wax that mimics multi-tasking. Miller then attached sensors to the patients ” heads to pick up the electric patterns of the brain. This sensor would show if ” the brain particles, called neurons, were truly processing two different tasks. What he found is that the brain neurons only lit up in singular areas one at a time, and never simultaneously.
D Davis Meyer, a professor of University of Michigan, studied the young adults in a similar experiment. He instructed them to simultaneously do math problems and classify simple words into different categories. For this experiment. Meyer found that when you think you are doing several jobs at the same time, you are actually switching between jobs. Even though the people tried to do the tasks at the same time, and both tasks were eventually accomplished, overall, the task look more time than if the person focused on a single task one at a time.
E People sacrifice efficiency when multitasking, Gloria Mark set office workers as his subjects. He found that they were constantly multitasking. He observed that nearly every 11 minutes people at work were disrupted. He found that doing different jobs at the same time may actually save time. However, despite the fact that they are faster, it does not mean they are more efficient. And we are equally likely to self-interrupt as be interrupted by outside sources. He found that in office nearly every 12 minutes an employee would stop and with no reason at all, cheek a website on their computer, call someone or write an email. If they concentrated for more than 20 minutes, they would feel distressed. He suggested that the average person may suffer from a short concentration span. This short attention span might be natural, but others suggest that new technology may be the problem. With cellphones and computers at our sides at all times, people will never run out of distractions. The format of media, such as advertisements, music, news articles and TV showsare also shortening, so people are used to paying attention to information for a very short time
F So even though focusing on one single task is the most efficient way for our brains to work, it is not practical to use this method in real life. According to human nature, people feel more comfortable and efficient in environments with a variety of tasks, Edward Hallowell said that people are losing a lot of efficiency in the workplace due to multitasking, outside distractions and self-distractions. As it matter of fact, the changes made to the workplace do not have to be dramatic. No one is suggesting we ban e-mail or make employees focus on only one task. However, certain common workplace tasks, such as group meetings, would be more efficient if we banned cell-phones, a common distraction. A person can also apply these tips to prevent self-distraction. Instead of arriving to your office and checking all of your e-mails for new tasks, a common workplace ritual, a person could dedicate an hour to a single task first thing in the morning. Self-timing is a great way to reduce distraction and efficiently finish tasks one by one, instead of slowing ourselves down with multi-tasking.
从已知信息来看，本场考试的趋势还是延续之前的情况，没有大的变化，阅读速度依旧是影响考生得分的关键，考生平时复习时注意多积累一些太空类、商业类专业词汇，*自己的阅读速度和效率。下场考试，考生们还是注意首篇出现填空+判断的篇章。第二篇注意出现配对题相关的搭配。课下练习注意时间分配合理，熟练掌握各个题型和篇章搭配类型的定位方法；另外，同时，下场考试注意List of Headings题型可能会出现，重点注意常见段落结构如何区分主次信息，抽象选项和原文信息如何识别出对应点。
参考剑桥练习：剑13 Test4 Passage 1；剑9 Test1 Passage 2；剑9 Test 2 Passage 2；剑13 Test2 Passage 3；剑14 Test2 Passage3
大作文：Museums and art galleries should concentrate on works that show the history and culture of their own country rather than showing works of art from different parts of the world. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
The table below shows the UK family spending on main categories from 1978 to 2003.
experience a substantial growth...
rise significantly from... to...
on the contrary
a decrease is recorded in..
...experienced the slightest drop
accounted for the largest proportion
the change in....were more noticeable..
....declined most remarkably...
the figure for...
Task 2 ：博物馆，文化类话题
Museums and art galleries should concentrate on works that show the history and culture of their own country rather than showing works of art from different parts of the world. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
objects of historical and cultural value具有历史和文化价值的物品